By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE instruction manual - basics covers easy ideas and knowledge utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up to date with study subsidized by means of ASHRAE and others, this quantity contains 39 chapters masking normal engineering info, simple fabrics, weather information, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and emblems, in addition to actual houses of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were extra to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on the planet.
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Extra resources for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
From leakage). This requires that m· = ³ Uv dA = constant (3) where m· is mass flow rate across the area normal to flow, v is fluid velocity normal to differential area dA, and U is fluid density. Both U and v may vary over the cross section A of the conduit. When flow is effectively incompressible (U = constant) in a pipe or duct flow analysis, the average velocity is then V = (1/A)³ v dA, and the mass flow rate can be written as m· = UVA (4) Q = m· e U = AV (5) or where Q is volumetric flow rate.
After the vena contracta, the fluid stream expands rather slowly through turbulent or laminar interaction with the fluid along its sides. Outside the jet, fluid velocity is comparatively small. Turbulence helps spread out the jet, increases losses, and brings the velocity distribution back to a more uniform profile. Finally, downstream, the velocity profile returns to the fully developed flow of Figure 4. The entrance and exit profiles can profoundly affect the vena contracta and pressure drop (Coleman 2004).
Air ducts are often rectangular in cross section. The equivalent circular conduit corresponding to the noncircular conduit must be found before the friction factor can be determined. For turbulent flow, hydraulic diameter Dh is substituted for D in Equation (30) and in the Reynolds number. , tubes with deep grooves or ridges). A more refined method for finding the equivalent circular duct diameter is given in Chapter 13. With laminar flow, the loss predictions may be off by a factor as large as two.