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By Nigel Cawthorne

Who used to be Robin Hood? all through background the figures of the hooded guy of Sherwood woodland and his band of outlaws have transfixed readers and audience; yet the place does the parable come from? the tale seemed out of the legend of the fairway guy yet came upon its situation through the reign of Richard II, the Lionheart, who used to be clear of England combating within the crusades. In his absence his brother John lay waste to the rustic. yet does this inform the total tale? was once Robin a bandit prince prior to a troop of brigands? Who was once the Sherrif and was once he in truth the valid legislations within the land struggling with vigilantes?

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He argues the pope considered that his status as Vicar of Christ allowed him to choose whether to dissolve the bond between a bishop and his church. Doran draws our attention to the use of the title apostolicus for the pope as mediator between God and man and as the bridegroom of the universal Church, thus putting him in the position of Christ (the true bridegroom). 5 Damian Smith takes this question of the role of bishops from the level of general policy to the specific case. He traces the chequered career of the bishops of La Seu d’Urgell in the Pyrenees from the late-twelfth century until the 1250s in an attempt to show ‘what difference, if any, papal government made in a remote locality during troubled times’.

Bolton, ‘Qui fidelis est in minimo: the importance of Innocent III’s gift list’, in Pope Innocent III, 113–140, at 140. 2   from unexpected angles. First he pieces together a complex range of references to argue that early in the pontificate Innocent was responsible for elevating Gregory’s tomb in St Peter’s. 3 Egger has also uncovered a previously unknown sermon by Innocent for the feast of St Gregory, perhaps addressed to a clerical audience: a truly remarkable discovery for one of the most studied sermon writers of the late middle ages.

Another illustration of the importance of networking in the medieval Church is provided by Anne Duggan through the career of one of the most famous exiles of the twelfth century: Thomas Becket. As she argues, ‘Becket’s survival depended, more than anything else, on the maintenance of his position at the papal Curia’. As for Niccolò di Anagni a century later, diplomatic ties with either the English or the French king played a key role: Niccolò was to receive English benefices early in his career at least in part because his uncle, Ugolino/Gregory IX supported the English king; Becket was able to reside in France because of the opposition of the French king to the English Crown.

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