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By Anthony Kenny

Sir Anthony Kenny the following keeps his interesting account of the heritage of philosophy, targeting the thousand-year-long medieval interval. this is often the second one quantity of a four-book set during which Kenny will spread a magisterial new historical past of Western philosophy, the 1st significant single-author heritage of philosophy to seem in decades.

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The nature of the two cities is not fully understood until we consider their Wnal state, which Augustine does in the last three books of The City of God. Augustine combs the sayings of the prophets, the sermons of Jesus, the epistles of the Apostles, and the book of Revelation, for information about the future of the world. Between the resurrection of Jesus and the end of history there is a period of a thousand years as described in the book of Revelation (DCD XX. 1–6). During this period the saints are reigning with Christ.

9 Eriugena Wrst engaged in philosophy in 851 when invited by Hincmar, the archbishop of Reims, to write a refutation of the ideas of a learned and pessimistic monk, Gottschalk. Gottschalk had taken up the problem of predestination where Augustine had left oV. He was reported to have deduced from the texts of Augustine something that was generally there left implicit, namely that predestination aVected sinners as well as saints. It was, he taught, not only the blessed in heaven whose ultimate fate had been predestined, the damned also had been predestined to hell before they were ever conceived.

God is the only necessary being, and all others are contingent. 19 Though he was irregular and unobservant in practice, Avicenna was a sincere Muslim, and took care to reconcile his philosophical scheme with the Prophet’s teaching and commands, which he regarded as a unique enlightenment from the Active Intellect. But his systematic treatment of religion in the second part of his Metaphysics makes no special appeal to the authority of the Quran. It gives rationalistic justiWcations for Islamic ritual and social practices (including polygamy and the subordination of women), but it is based on religious principles of a general and philosophical kind.

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