By Joseph A. Fitzmyer
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Extra info for A wandering Aramean: collected Aramaic essays
Pflaum, Les procurateurs équestres sous le haut-empire romain (Paris: Maisonneuve, 1950) 23-25. 2§193-94). Cf. Ant. 5 §417; Philo, Embassy to Gaius, 31 §212; Acts 21:26-30. i*See p. 35. "Ant. 2 §191. ); but it is undoubtedly due to scribal harmonization. "See P. Benoit, J. T. Milik, R. de Vaux, Les grottes de Murabbd al (DJD 2; Oxford: Clarendon. 1961) 270-74 (Mur 158-63). luCIL. 3. 14155:3; Thomsen §178 (cf. G. Jeffery, PEFQS 29  35). -' CIL 2. 13587; Thomsen § 1 (cf. F. J. Bliss, PEFQS 26 [ 1895] 25).
But there are clear indications, both epigraphic and literary, that Hebrew continued in use in certain social strata of the people and perhaps also in certain geographical areas. The evidence, however, is not as abundant as it is for Aramaic. It is true that the number of Qumran texts written in Hebrew far outnumber those in Aramaic, and these bear witness to a lively literary productivity in the language. It is not great literature, no more than the Aramaic literature of the time; even the War Scroll and the Thanksgiving Psalms are scarcely exceptions to this, though they are the most literary pieces in the Qumran scrolls.
This is a recognized convenience and no more. l04 Bar is found in Semitic names in a text written in Hebrew, and ben in a text written m Aramaic. The only noteworthy thing in the Murabbacat texts is that bar is more frequent in Hebrew texts than ben is in Aramaic texts. The evidence, however, is so slight that one could scarcely conclude that this argues for Aramaic as the more common language. The Copper Roll from Qumran Cave III, which almost certainly had nothing to do with the Essenes themselves, is "the oldest known text to be written in Mishnaic Hebrew,"105 or perhaps more accurately, in Proto-Mishnaic Hebrew.