By Richard Barras
This two-volume publication explores how the nice structures of britain undergo witness to one thousand years of the nation’s background. In all ages, funding in iconic structures reaches a climax whilst the present mode of creation is working so much successfully, surplus wealth is so much abundant, and the dominant category principles ultimate. in the course of such sessions of balance and prosperity, the call for for brand new structures is robust, structural and stylistic suggestions abound, and there's fierce pageant to construct for lasting popularity. every one such climax produces a special classic of hegemonic structures which are monuments to the wealth and gear of these who governed their global.
This moment quantity provides 3 case stories of iconic construction funding from the eighteenth century to the current day. in the course of the eighteenth century the wealth of the nice landed estates funded the golden age of kingdom condo construction by way of aristocracy and gentry. in the course of the 19th century the economic Revolution unleashed an exceptional wave of infrastructure funding and civic development via the ascendant capitalist classification. because the overdue 20th century the facility of worldwide monetary capital has been symbolized by way of the relentless upward thrust of urban centre workplace towers. a last bankruptcy argues that those assorted different types of hegemonic development are a actual manifestation of the underlying rhythm of English history.
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Extra info for A Wealth of Buildings: Marking the Rhythm of English History: Volume II: 1688–Present
During the seventeenth century, the focus of England’s military campaigns moved away from ancient territorial claims in France and religious conflict with Spain. Instead, war aims became more explicitly commercial, directed to the promotion of trade and the acquisition of colonies. The Commonwealth initiated an aggressive foreign policy based on sea power. Cromwell built up a powerful fleet which was deployed in fighting a trade war with the Netherlands and launching an attack on the Spanish West Indies that led to the capture of Jamaica (Smith 1997: 335–40).
2015); Crafts and Harley (1992); Hills et al. (2015); Mitchell (1988) Average output growth rate (% per annum) 16 A Wealth of Buildings: Marking the Rhythm of English History 6 Landed Supremacy 17 working-class wages, so that the increase in national wealth from industrialization accrued largely to the bourgeoisie in the form of business profits. One estimate suggests that the gross rate of profit could even have doubled from 10 to 20 % between the late eighteenth and midnineteenth centuries (Allen 2009b).
It has recently been argued that the convergence of these interests led to the emergence in Britain of a very particular form of rentier economy, termed ‘gentlemanly capitalism’, in which the accumulation of financial and commercial wealth by the propertied classes was symbiotically related to the global expansion of British imperialism (Cain and Hopkins 2002). 2 NaƟonal debt as % naƟonal income Napoleonic War RevoluƟonary War American War Seven Years War War of Spanish Succession World War 1 World War 2 Bank crash National debt, 1690–2013 Sources: Mitchell (1988); O’Brien and Hunt (1993); ONS Year 0 1690 1710 1730 1750 1770 1790 1810 1830 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 Nine 50 Years War 100 150 200 250 300 6 Landed Supremacy 27 28 A Wealth of Buildings: Marking the Rhythm of English History It is well documented that enormous fortunes were made from commerce and finance during the eighteenth century, particularly by leading figures in the City of London (Rogers 1979).