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By Grenander U.

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The first group is the external target population, and the second group is the “accessible” population. The results are used in a logistic regression to estimate the probability that a Toluna panel member belongs to the target population rather than the accessible population. For future surveys, the online panel members are asked these key set of questions. The process can be used with multiple panel sources and river samples as the propensity is computed in real time. Once the distribution of the propensity scores is determined, it can be used to select respondents for future surveys on the same topic.

The main US online panels were created during the dot com boom, when investments in online businesses of all kinds were at their peak. 3. Research buyers in the US were especially interested in lowering their data collection costs. 4. Response rates for US random-digit dialing (RDD) surveys were declining. 5. The cost and turnaround time of RDD, face-to-face, and mail surveys were increasingly viewed as problematic by many clients. 2 Consolidation of online panels The period from the mid-1990s until about 2005 was one of explosive growth of online panels, especially in the United States and Europe.

3 Probability-based panels Probability-based online panels recruit panel members using established sampling methodologies such as random-digit dialing (RDD), address-based sampling (ABS), and area probability sampling. Regardless of the specific sampling method used, a key requirement is that all members of the population of interest have a known, non-zero probability of receiving an invitation to join. No one is allowed to join the panel unless he or she is first selected in a probability sample.

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