By Philip W. Harvey, David J. Everett, Christopher J. Springall
Despite being considered as the commonest toxicological objective within the endocrine process, the adrenal gland has frequently been ignored in regulatory trying out. Adrenal Toxicology addresses the elevated curiosity in adrenocortical toxicology and the necessity for a source that makes suggestions to be had to ascertain adrenal endocrine disruption.
Examining present thoughts and the newest developments, Adrenal Toxicology stories the endocrinology, pharmacology, pathology and toxicology of the adrenal gland. this article presents details at the variety of gear and chemical substances that impact adrenocortical functionality and indicates standardized techniques for in vivo and in vitro review. This quantity additionally offers fresh advancements within the molecular mechanisms of toxicity to the adrenal cortex and medulla, and considers environmental adrenal endocrine disruption in sentinel species.
Adrenal Toxicology :
- reflects the foremost advancements remodeled the prior decade
- focuses at the most up-to-date examine suggestions, together with their makes use of and limitations
- provides an built-in method for adrenal toxicology evaluation
- identifies wisdom and knowledge gaps, offering impetus for regulatory consideration
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Additional resources for Adrenal Toxicology
Numerous drugs have been documented to alter adrenal function as an unexpected side effect in humans (Mann, 1996), and adrenocortical suppression is considered the most common and serious of these adverse drug reactions. Further, an increasing number of chemicals have been reported to alter mammalian adrenocortical function in vivo, and in vitro systems have identified the molecular targets involved. The fact that free-living fish and birds show altered adrenal function indicates that environmental exposures are capable of inducing adrenal endocrine disruption, raising the question of whether the human population may also be vulnerable.
2007). Unfortunately, enlarged adrenal and other adrenocortical findings are often incorrectly disregarded in regulatory toxicology studies as a stress-related finding without evidence of the actual mechanism of ACTH overstimulation. Establishing the cause of adrenal hypertrophy is therefore Adrenal Toxicology 21 important, and adrenocortical competence should be established before findings are attributed to stress. As well as resulting from a loss of feedback inhibition of ACTH due to adrenocortical inhibition, adrenal hypertrophy may occur as a result of classical “stress” or pharmacological stimulation of the HPA axis, if these also cause persistent ACTH secretion.
Feltus FA, Kovacs WJ, Nicholoson W, et al. Epidermal growth factor increases cortisol production and type II 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4)-isomerase expression in human adrenocortical carcinoma cells: evidence for a Stat5-dependent mechanism. Endocrinology 2003; 144:1847–1853. Florio S, Ciarcia R, Crispino L, et al. Hydrocortisone has a protective effect on cyclosporin A-induced cardiotoxicity. J Cell Physiol 2003; 195:21–26. Frank GR, Speiser PW, Griffin KJ, Safety of medications and hormones used in pediatric endocrinology: Adrenal.