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Cen” indicates that the gene is very close to the centromere. For example, 16pcen refers to the short arm of chromosome 16 near the centromere. “Ter” stands for terminus, which indicates that the gene is very close to the end of the p or q arm. For example, 14qter refers to the tip of the long arm of chromosome 14. (“Tel” is also sometimes used to describe a gene’s location. “Tel” stands for telomeres, which are at the ends of each chromosome. 2. 34 X-Linked Sideroblastic Anemia Molecular Location The Human Genome Project, an international research effort completed in 2003, determined the sequence of base pairs for each human chromosome.

The position is usually designated by two digits (representing a region and a band), which are sometimes followed by a decimal point and one or more additional digits (representing sub-bands within a light or dark area). The number indicating the gene position increases with distance from the centromere. For example: 14q21 represents position 21 on the long arm of chromosome 14. 14q21 is closer to the centromere than 14q22. Sometimes, the abbreviations “cen” or “ter” are also used to describe a gene’s cytogenetic location.

In some cases, however, only one of the two copies is normally turned on. Which copy is active depends on the parent of origin: some genes are normally active only when they are inherited from a person’s father; others are active only when inherited from a person’s mother. This phenomenon is known as genomic imprinting. In genes that undergo genomic imprinting, the parent of origin is often marked, or “stamped,” on the gene during the formation of egg and sperm cells. This stamping process, called methylation, is a chemical reaction that attaches small molecules called methyl groups to certain segments of DNA.

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