By T.K. Ghose ,A. Fiechter, N.Blakebrough
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Extra resources for Advances in Biochemical Engineering, Volume 008: Mass Transfer in Biotechnology
However, much more work is required before we can make quantitative generalizations and meaningful comparisons. 3. Impeller Design Further studies of mixing in bioreactors should include not only the development of reliable correlations but also the design of new impellers better suited than turbines to mixing non-Newtonian culture fluids. Only Steel and Maxon  seem to have given this serious consideration. They demonstrated clearly the advantages of the multiple rod impeller over turbine impellers in providing homogeneous oxygen transfer conditions in fungal culture broths.
25. Mixing time correlations for non-aerated Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, turbine impeller [ 81 ] Nevertheless, available correlations do serve as valuable guides. One of the more recent correlations for top-entering impellers is that given by Nagata : 1 _ 1 Nm OmN i. 21 dT\j~/(1 _ e l ~ , / ~ ) ( N ~ e ~ 10'), (41) where Nm NQ = mixing number = OmN = discharge number = Q/N d~ Np = power n u m b e r = NRe = Rey n o l d s n u m b e r - N d ~ 0m N di T Q p p v = = = = = = = = Pgc (42) (43) (44) o N 3d s v and mixing time impeller rotational speed impeller diameter tank diameter volumetric circulation rate in tank power input fluid density kinematic viscosity.
The definitely warrant further attention. Finally, the available evidence suggests that standard rotational viscometers are suitable for studying broths containing polysaccharides as the air bubbles and solids present do not appear to interfere significantly with viscosity measurements. Nevertheless, further verification of this contention would be prudent. It would also be worthwhile to compare results obtained using standard viscometers with those obtained using the methods proposed by Bongenaar et al.