By Joseph C. Liao, Li-Ming Su
This ebook offers an outline of the present state-of-art in combining advances in biomedical imaging with intraoperative navigation and preoperative making plans for urologic surgical procedure. those advances carry nice promise in bettering diagnostic and healing urologic interventions to enhance sufferer results. major specialists during this fascinating rising box covers early medical and pre-clinical functions of optical, ultrasound, cross-sectional and computer-assisted imaging in urologic surgery.
Advances in Image-Guided Urologic Surgery presents a different and worthy source for viewers with scientific and study curiosity in minimally invasive surgical procedure, endourology, urologic oncology, imaging and biomedical engineering.
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Additional resources for Advances in Image-Guided Urologic Surgery
Cauterisation of bladder tissue specimens) on μoctbased grading of human bladder cancer were inconclusive but indicative of the need for in vivo evaluation . More knowledge on the appearance of cauterised urothelium in OCT images is necessary and should be obtained in an in vivo setting, as cauterisation at resection margins might lead to problematic artefacts . In patients with low-grade, low-stage disease and a recurrence shown by OCT to be again low grade, endoscopic laser fulguration and/or coagulation may be applied.
5 Depth (mm) Fig. 4 Attenuation coefficient mapping of OCT data. A region of interest (ROI) is selected within an OCT image (indicated by the red square). From the ROI, the average OCT signal vs. depth can be plotted as shown in the graph below. From this graph, the attenuation of the OCT signal by means of the attenuation coefficient (μoct, mm−1) is calculated using Beer’s law Layer Thickness In case of a bladder cancer lesion, cells grow and change and the urothelial layer thickens . This layer thickness can be measured from OCT images , though it does not provide information about the architectural and cellular changes that occur in the layer itself during carcinogenesis.
In addition, OCT can easily be integrated into existing surgical instruments, such as laparoscopes, endoscopes, catheters, hand-held probes, or needles [6–8]. As a result, OCT can potentially guide surgical intervention or help image tissue microstructure in situations where conventional excisional biopsy would be hazardous or impossible . While initially used in the field of ophthalmology to image the retina and macula in vivo, OCT has been investigated for its roles in imaging the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, gynecologic, skin, and nervous systems [9–14].