By Grant E. Isaac
Genetically changed (GM) agricultural plants that are licensed as secure in North the US (Canada and the us) are dealing with major regulatory hurdles in having access to the eu Union. the improvement and commercialization of GM plants illustrate a posh problem dealing with exchange international relations - the problem of regulatory regionalism created via social regulatory limitations.
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Additional info for Agricultural Biotechnology and Transatlantic Trade: Regulatory Barriers to GM Crops (Cabi Publishing)
Comparative advantage is simply the principle that global welfare can be maximized by allocating factors of production to where they are most efficiently utilized and then trading products to meet consumer demand. A division of the factors of production is widely accepted as an organizing principle at the national level, and comparative advantage simply extends this notion to the international level (Malchup, 1979). According to the international economics literature, trade barriers hinder market access and distort comparative advantage.
The second broad type of GM crops are output-trait applications, targeting those commercial characteristics of the crop that determine its value, in order to increase value by increasing the expression of the desirable characteristics. Improving crops to enhance value may be viewed as a scientific response to the problem of crop quality. GM varieties of crops are being customized to meet the specific demands of end-users, such as livestock feeders, food processors or industrial users, who may place a premium on high-quality products.
Agricultural Biotechnology 39 rally occurring counterpart does not exist. PNTs may be created either through the use of biotechnology or through traditional plant-breeding techniques. Hence, novel does not imply the use of biotechnology. GM crops do, however, imply the use of biotechnology, but not every genetic modification creates a PNT. For instance, if genetic modification is used to develop a new maize variety from two parental varieties, then the resultant GM maize is not novel, in the sense that it does not express traits never before characterized in maize varieties.