By American Water Works Association
This guide courses operators within the choice, deploy, and upkeep of air valves in consuming water provide purposes. insurance contains air valve varieties, valve position, valve orifice sizing, water hammer, set up, operation, protection, and upkeep.
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Additional info for Air-Release, Air/Vacuum & Combination Air Valves
Provide all intake piping with a down-turned elbow, an air gap, and a bird screen. Depth of Burial Valves should be buried below the frost line to prevent freezing. Where combination air valves are used, those in a single body are less likely to freeze than those in separate bodies. Freezing Suitable insulation and electrical heat tape should be provided in areas prone to freezing. Frozen air valves will not operate and can be damaged. Thermally activated relief valves (typically supplied in 3/8 or '/2 in.
1975. Removal of Air From Water Lines, Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, February. J. Surge Reference Manual, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, latest edition. AWWA M11. 1989. Steel Pipe-A Guide for Design and Installation, 3rd edition. Denver, Colo. AWWA Standard for Air-Release, AirNacuum and Combination Air Valves for Waterworks Service, AWWA C512-92 (1st edition), Denver, Colo. Colorado State University. 1977. Concepts of Water Hammer & Air Entrapment in the Filling & Testing of Pipelines.
Colorado State University. 1977. Concepts of Water Hammer & Air Entrapment in the Filling & Testing of Pipelines. Fort Collins, Colo. Dean, John A. 1992. Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry. McGraw Hill, New York. Edmunds, Robert C. 1979. Air Binding in Pipes, Journal AWWA, May, 1979. Flow of Fluids. 1982. Technical Paper No. 410, Crane. Giles, Ranald V. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics, (2nd edition) McGraw Hill, New York. Karassik, Igor J. et al. 1986. Pump Handbook, 2nd edition. McGraw Hill, New York.